# Source code for ht.boiling_plate

```
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
'''Chemical Engineering Design Library (ChEDL). Utilities for process modeling.
Copyright (C) 2017, Caleb Bell <Caleb.Andrew.Bell@gmail.com>
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.'''
from __future__ import division
from math import radians
from fluids.core import Bond, Prandtl, thermal_diffusivity
from fluids.two_phase_voidage import Lockhart_Martinelli_Xtt
from fluids.constants import g
__all__ = ['h_boiling_Amalfi', 'h_boiling_Lee_Kang_Kim',
'h_boiling_Han_Lee_Kim', 'h_boiling_Huang_Sheer',
'h_boiling_Yan_Lin']
[docs]def h_boiling_Amalfi(m, x, Dh, rhol, rhog, mul, mug, kl, Hvap, sigma, q,
A_channel_flow, chevron_angle=45.0):
r'''Calculates the two-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient of a
liquid and gas flowing inside a plate and frame heat exchanger, as
developed in [1]_ from a wide range of existing correlations and data sets.
Expected to be the most accurate correlation currently available.
For Bond number < 4 (tiny channel case):
.. math::
h= 982 \left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right)\left(\frac{\beta}{\beta_{max}}\right)^{1.101}
\left(\frac{G^2 D_h}{\rho_m \sigma}\right)^{0.315}
\left(\frac{\rho_l}{\rho_g}\right)^{-0.224} Bo^{0.320}
For Bond number >= 4:
.. math::
h = 18.495 \left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right) \left(\frac{\beta}{\beta_{max}}
\right)^{0.248}\left(Re_g\right)^{0.135}\left(Re_{lo}\right)^{0.351}
\left(\frac{\rho_l}{\rho_g}\right)^{-0.223} Bd^{0.235} Bo^{0.198}
In the above equations, beta max is 45 degrees; Bo is Boiling number;
and Bd is Bond number.
Note that this model depends on the specific heat flux involved.
Parameters
----------
m : float
Mass flow rate [kg/s]
x : float
Quality at the specific point in the plate exchanger []
Dh : float
Hydraulic diameter of the plate, :math:`D_h = \frac{4\lambda}{\phi}` [m]
rhol : float
Density of the liquid [kg/m^3]
rhog : float
Density of the gas [kg/m^3]
mul : float
Viscosity of the liquid [Pa*s]
mug : float
Viscosity of the gas [Pa*s]
kl : float
Thermal conductivity of liquid [W/m/K]
Hvap : float
Heat of vaporization of the fluid at the system pressure, [J/kg]
sigma : float
Surface tension of liquid [N/m]
q : float
Heat flux, [W/m^2]
A_channel_flow : float
The flow area for the fluid, calculated as
:math:`A_{ch} = 2\cdot \text{width} \cdot \text{amplitude}` [m]
chevron_angle : float, optional
Angle of the plate corrugations with respect to the vertical axis
(the direction of flow if the plates were straight), between 0 and
90. For exchangers with two angles, use the average value. [degrees]
Returns
-------
h : float
Boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/m^2/K]
Notes
-----
Heat transfer correlation developed from 1903 datum. Fluids included R134a,
ammonia, R236fa, R600a, R290, R1270, R1234yf, R410A, R507A, ammonia/water,
and air/water mixtures. Wide range of operating conditions, plate geometries.
Examples
--------
>>> h_boiling_Amalfi(m=3E-5, x=.4, Dh=0.00172, rhol=567., rhog=18.09,
... kl=0.086, mul=156E-6, mug=7.11E-6, sigma=0.02, Hvap=9E5, q=1E5,
... A_channel_flow=0.0003)
776.0781179096225
References
----------
.. [1] Amalfi, Raffaele L., Farzad Vakili-Farahani, and John R. Thome.
"Flow Boiling and Frictional Pressure Gradients in Plate Heat Exchangers.
Part 2: Comparison of Literature Methods to Database and New Prediction
Methods." International Journal of Refrigeration 61 (January 2016):
185-203. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.07.009.
'''
chevron_angle_max = 45.
beta_s = chevron_angle/chevron_angle_max
rho_s = (rhol/rhog) # rho start in model
G = m/A_channel_flow # Calculating the area of the channel is normally specified well
Bd = Bond(rhol=rhol, rhog=rhog, sigma=sigma, L=Dh)
rho_h = 1./(x/rhog + (1-x)/rhol) # homogeneous holdup - mixture density calculation
We_m = G*G*Dh/sigma/rho_h
Bo = q/(G*Hvap) # Boiling number
if Bd < 4:
# Should occur normally for "microscale" conditions
Nu_tp = 982*beta_s**1.101*We_m**0.315*Bo**0.320*rho_s**-0.224
else:
Re_lo = G*Dh/mul
Re_g = G*x*Dh/mug
Nu_tp = 18.495*beta_s**0.135*Re_g**0.135*Re_lo**0.351*Bd**0.235*Bo**0.198*rho_s**-0.223
return kl/Dh*Nu_tp
[docs]def h_boiling_Lee_Kang_Kim(m, x, D_eq, rhol, rhog, mul, mug, kl, Hvap, q,
A_channel_flow):
r'''Calculates the two-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient of a
liquid and gas flowing inside a plate and frame heat exchanger, as
shown in [1]_ and reviewed in [2]_.
For :math:`Re_g/Re_l < 9`:
.. math::
h = 98.7 \left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right)\left(\frac{Re_g}{Re_l}
\right)^{-0.0848}Bo^{-0.0597} X_{tt}^{0.0973}
For :math:`Re_g/Re_l \ge 9`:
.. math::
h = 234.9 \left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right)\left(\frac{Re_g}{Re_l}
\right)^{-0.576} Bo^{-0.275} X_{tt}^{0.66}
.. math::
X_{tt} = \left(\frac{1-x}{x}\right)^{0.875} \left(\frac{\rho_g}{\rho_l}
\right)^{0.5}\left(\frac{\mu_l}{\mu_g}\right)^{0.125}
In the above equations, Bo is Boiling number.
Note that this model depends on the specific heat flux involved. It also
uses equivalent diameter, not hydraulic diameter.
Parameters
----------
m : float
Mass flow rate [kg/s]
x : float
Quality at the specific point in the plate exchanger []
D_eq : float
Equivalent diameter of the channels, :math:`D_{eq} = 4a` [m]
rhol : float
Density of the liquid [kg/m^3]
rhog : float
Density of the gas [kg/m^3]
mul : float
Viscosity of the liquid [Pa*s]
mug : float
Viscosity of the gas [Pa*s]
kl : float
Thermal conductivity of liquid [W/m/K]
Hvap : float
Heat of vaporization of the fluid at the system pressure, [J/kg]
q : float
Heat flux, [W/m^2]
A_channel_flow : float
The flow area for the fluid, calculated as
:math:`A_{ch} = 2\cdot \text{width} \cdot \text{amplitude}` [m]
Returns
-------
h : float
Boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/m^2/K]
Notes
-----
This correlation was developed with mass fluxes from 14.5 to 33.6 kg/m^2/s,
heat flux from 15 to 30 kW/m^2, qualities from 0.09 to 0.6, 200 < Re < 600,
2.3 < Re_g/Re_l < 32.1, 0.00019 < Bo < 0.001, 0.028 < Xtt < 0.3.
Mean average deviation of 4.4%.
Examples
--------
>>> h_boiling_Lee_Kang_Kim(m=3E-5, x=.4, D_eq=0.002, rhol=567., rhog=18.09,
... kl=0.086, mul=156E-6, mug=9E-6, Hvap=9E5, q=1E5, A_channel_flow=0.0003)
1229.6271295086806
References
----------
.. [1] Lee, Eungchan, Hoon Kang, and Yongchan Kim. "Flow Boiling Heat
Transfer and Pressure Drop of Water in a Plate Heat Exchanger with
Corrugated Channels at Low Mass Flux Conditions." International Journal
of Heat and Mass Transfer 77 (October 2014): 37-45.
doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.05.019.
.. [2] Amalfi, Raffaele L., Farzad Vakili-Farahani, and John R. Thome.
"Flow Boiling and Frictional Pressure Gradients in Plate Heat Exchangers.
Part 1: Review and Experimental Database." International Journal of
Refrigeration 61 (January 2016): 166-84.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.07.010.
'''
G = m/A_channel_flow
Bo = q/(G*Hvap)
Re_ratio = x/(1. - x)*mul/mug
Xtt = Lockhart_Martinelli_Xtt(x, rhol, rhog, mul, mug, pow_x=0.875, pow_rho=0.5, pow_mu=0.125)
if Re_ratio < 9:
h = 98.7*kl/D_eq*Re_ratio**-0.0848*Bo**-0.0597*Xtt**0.0973
else:
h = 234.9*kl/D_eq*Re_ratio**-0.576*Bo**-0.275*Xtt**0.66
return h
[docs]def h_boiling_Han_Lee_Kim(m, x, Dh, rhol, rhog, mul, kl, Hvap, Cpl, q,
A_channel_flow, wavelength, chevron_angle=45.0):
r'''Calculates the two-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient of a
liquid and gas flowing inside a plate and frame heat exchanger, as
developed in [1]_ from experiments with three plate exchangers and the
working fluids R410A and R22. A well-documented and tested correlation,
reviewed in [2]_, [3]_, [4]_, [5]_, and [6]_.
.. math::
h = Ge_1\left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right)Re_{eq}^{Ge_2} Pr^{0.4} Bo_{eq}^{0.3}
.. math::
Ge_1 = 2.81\left(\frac{\lambda}{D_h}\right)^{-0.041}\left(\frac{\pi}{2}
-\beta\right)^{-2.83}
.. math::
Ge_2 = 0.746\left(\frac{\lambda}{D_h}\right)^{-0.082}\left(\frac{\pi}
{2}-\beta\right)^{0.61}
.. math::
Re_{eq} = \frac{G_{eq} D_h}{\mu_l}
.. math::
Bo_{eq} = \frac{q}{G_{eq} H_{vap}}
.. math::
G_{eq} = \frac{m}{A_{flow}}\left[1 - x + x\left(\frac{\rho_l}{\rho_g}
\right)^{1/2}\right]
In the above equations, lambda is the wavelength of the corrugations, and
the flow area is specified to be (twice the corrugation amplitude times the
width of the plate. The mass flow is that per channel. Radians is used in
degrees, and the formulas are for the inclination angle not the
chevron angle (it is converted internally).
Note that this model depends on the specific heat flux involved.
Parameters
----------
m : float
Mass flow rate [kg/s]
x : float
Quality at the specific point in the plate exchanger []
Dh : float
Hydraulic diameter of the plate, :math:`D_h = \frac{4\lambda}{\phi}` [m]
rhol : float
Density of the liquid [kg/m^3]
rhog : float
Density of the gas [kg/m^3]
mul : float
Viscosity of the liquid [Pa*s]
kl : float
Thermal conductivity of liquid [W/m/K]
Hvap : float
Heat of vaporization of the fluid at the system pressure, [J/kg]
Cpl : float
Heat capacity of liquid [J/kg/K]
q : float
Heat flux, [W/m^2]
A_channel_flow : float
The flow area for the fluid, calculated as
:math:`A_{ch} = 2\cdot \text{width} \cdot \text{amplitude}` [m]
wavelength : float
Distance between the bottoms of two of the ridges (sometimes called
pitch), [m]
chevron_angle : float, optional
Angle of the plate corrugations with respect to the vertical axis
(the direction of flow if the plates were straight), between 0 and
90. For exchangers with two angles, use the average value. [degrees]
Returns
-------
h : float
Boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/m^2/K]
Notes
-----
Date regression was with the log mean temperature difference, uncorrected
for geometry. Developed with three plate heat exchangers with angles of 45,
35, and 20 degrees. Mass fluxes ranged from 13 to 34 kg/m^2/s; evaporating
temperatures of 5, 10, and 15 degrees, vapor quality 0.9 to 0.15, heat
fluxes of 2.5-8.5 kW/m^2.
Examples
--------
>>> h_boiling_Han_Lee_Kim(m=3E-5, x=.4, Dh=0.002, rhol=567., rhog=18.09,
... kl=0.086, mul=156E-6, Hvap=9E5, Cpl=2200, q=1E5, A_channel_flow=0.0003,
... wavelength=3.7E-3, chevron_angle=45)
675.7322255419421
References
----------
.. [1] Han, Dong-Hyouck, Kyu-Jung Lee, and Yoon-Ho Kim. "Experiments on the
Characteristics of Evaporation of R410A in Brazed Plate Heat Exchangers
with Different Geometric Configurations." Applied Thermal Engineering 23,
no. 10 (July 2003): 1209-25. doi:10.1016/S1359-4311(03)00061-9.
.. [2] Amalfi, Raffaele L., Farzad Vakili-Farahani, and John R. Thome.
"Flow Boiling and Frictional Pressure Gradients in Plate Heat Exchangers.
Part 1: Review and Experimental Database." International Journal of
Refrigeration 61 (January 2016): 166-84.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.07.010.
.. [3] Eldeeb, Radia, Vikrant Aute, and Reinhard Radermacher. "A Survey of
Correlations for Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for Evaporation and
Condensation in Plate Heat Exchangers." International Journal of
Refrigeration 65 (May 2016): 12-26. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.11.013.
.. [4] Solotych, Valentin, Donghyeon Lee, Jungho Kim, Raffaele L. Amalfi,
and John R. Thome. "Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Pressure Drops
within Compact Plate Heat Exchangers: Experiments and Flow
Visualizations." International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 94
(March 2016): 239-253. doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2015.11.037.
.. [5] García-Cascales, J. R., F. Vera-García, J. M. Corberán-Salvador, and
J. Gonzálvez-Maciá. "Assessment of Boiling and Condensation Heat
Transfer Correlations in the Modelling of Plate Heat Exchangers."
International Journal of Refrigeration 30, no. 6 (September 2007):
1029-41. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2007.01.004.
.. [6] Huang, Jianchang. "Performance Analysis of Plate Heat Exchangers
Used as Refrigerant Evaporators," 2011. Thesis.
http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/9779
'''
chevron_angle = radians(chevron_angle)
G = m/A_channel_flow # For once, clearly defined in the publication
G_eq = G*((1. - x) + x*(rhol/rhog)**0.5)
Re_eq = G_eq*Dh/mul
Bo_eq = q/(G_eq*Hvap)
Pr = Prandtl(Cp=Cpl, k=kl, mu=mul)
Ge1 = 2.81*(wavelength/Dh)**-0.041*chevron_angle**-2.83
Ge2 = 0.746*(wavelength/Dh)**-0.082*chevron_angle**0.61
return Ge1*kl/Dh*Re_eq**Ge2*Bo_eq**0.3*Pr**0.4
[docs]def h_boiling_Huang_Sheer(rhol, rhog, mul, kl, Hvap, sigma, Cpl, q, Tsat,
angle=35.):
r'''Calculates the two-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient of a
liquid and gas flowing inside a plate and frame heat exchanger, as
developed in [1]_ and again in the thesis [2]_. Depends on the properties
of the fluid and not the heat exchanger's geometry.
.. math::
h = 1.87\times10^{-3}\left(\frac{k_l}{d_o}\right)\left(\frac{q d_o}
{k_l T_{sat}}\right)^{0.56}
\left(\frac{H_{vap} d_o^2}{\alpha_l^2}\right)^{0.31} Pr_l^{0.33}
.. math::
d_o = 0.0146\theta\left[\frac{2\sigma}{g(\rho_l-\rho_g)}\right]^{0.5}\\
\theta = 35^\circ
Note that this model depends on the specific heat flux involved and
the saturation temperature of the fluid.
Parameters
----------
rhol : float
Density of the liquid [kg/m^3]
rhog : float
Density of the gas [kg/m^3]
mul : float
Viscosity of the liquid [Pa*s]
kl : float
Thermal conductivity of liquid [W/m/K]
Hvap : float
Heat of vaporization of the fluid at the system pressure, [J/kg]
sigma : float
Surface tension of liquid [N/m]
Cpl : float
Heat capacity of liquid [J/kg/K]
q : float
Heat flux, [W/m^2]
Tsat : float
Actual saturation temperature of the fluid at the system pressure, [K]
angle : float, optional
Contact angle of the bubbles with the wall, assumed 35 for refrigerants
in the development of the correlation [degrees]
Returns
-------
h : float
Boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/m^2/K]
Notes
-----
Developed with 222 data points for R134a and R507A with only two of them
for ammonia and R12. Chevron angles ranged from 28 to 60 degrees, heat
fluxes from 1.85 kW/m^2 to 10.75 kW/m^2, mass fluxes 5.6 to 52.25 kg/m^2/s,
qualities from 0.21 to 0.95, and saturation temperatures in degrees Celcius
of 1.9 to 13.04.
The inclusion of the saturation temperature makes this correlation have
limited predictive power for other fluids whose saturation tempratures
might be much higher or lower than those used in the development of the
correlation. For this reason it should be regarded with caution.
As first published in [1]_ a power of two was missing in the correlation
for bubble diameter in the dimensionless group with a power of 0.31. That
made the correlation non-dimensional.
A second variant of this correlation was also published in [2]_ but with
less accuracy because it was designed to mimick the standard pool boiling
curve.
The correlation is reviewed in [3]_, but without the corrected power. It
was also changed there to use hydraulic diameter, not bubble diameter.
It still ranked as one of the more accurate correlations reviewed.
[4]_ also reviewed it without the corrected power but found it predicted
the lowest results of those surveyed.
Examples
--------
>>> h_boiling_Huang_Sheer(rhol=567., rhog=18.09, kl=0.086, mul=156E-6,
... Hvap=9E5, sigma=0.02, Cpl=2200, q=1E4, Tsat=279.15)
4401.055635078054
References
----------
.. [1] Huang, Jianchang, Thomas J. Sheer, and Michael Bailey-McEwan. "Heat
Transfer and Pressure Drop in Plate Heat Exchanger Refrigerant
Evaporators." International Journal of Refrigeration 35, no. 2 (March
2012): 325-35. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2011.11.002.
.. [2] Huang, Jianchang. "Performance Analysis of Plate Heat Exchangers
Used as Refrigerant Evaporators," 2011. Thesis.
http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/9779
.. [3] Amalfi, Raffaele L., Farzad Vakili-Farahani, and John R. Thome.
"Flow Boiling and Frictional Pressure Gradients in Plate Heat Exchangers.
Part 1: Review and Experimental Database." International Journal of
Refrigeration 61 (January 2016): 166-84.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.07.010.
.. [4] Eldeeb, Radia, Vikrant Aute, and Reinhard Radermacher. "A Survey of
Correlations for Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for Evaporation and
Condensation in Plate Heat Exchangers." International Journal of
Refrigeration 65 (May 2016): 12-26. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.11.013.
'''
do = 0.0146*angle*(2.*sigma/(g*(rhol - rhog)))**0.5
Prl = Prandtl(Cp=Cpl, mu=mul, k=kl)
alpha_l = thermal_diffusivity(k=kl, rho=rhol, Cp=Cpl)
h = 1.87E-3*(kl/do)*(q*do/(kl*Tsat))**0.56*(Hvap*do**2/alpha_l**2)**0.31*Prl**0.33
return h
[docs]def h_boiling_Yan_Lin(m, x, Dh, rhol, rhog, mul, kl, Hvap, Cpl, q,
A_channel_flow):
r'''Calculates the two-phase boiling heat transfer coefficient of a
liquid and gas flowing inside a plate and frame heat exchanger, as
developed in [1]_. Reviewed in [2]_, [3]_, [4]_, and [5]_.
.. math::
h = 1.926\left(\frac{k_l}{D_h}\right) Re_{eq} Pr_l^{1/3} Bo_{eq}^{0.3}
Re^{-0.5}
.. math::
Re_{eq} = \frac{G_{eq} D_h}{\mu_l}
.. math::
Bo_{eq} = \frac{q}{G_{eq} H_{vap}}
.. math::
G_{eq} = \frac{m}{A_{flow}}\left[1 - x + x\left(\frac{\rho_l}{\rho_g}
\right)^{1/2}\right]
.. math::
Re = \frac{G D_h}{\mu_l}
Claimed to be valid for :math:`2000 < Re_{eq} < 10000`.
Parameters
----------
m : float
Mass flow rate [kg/s]
x : float
Quality at the specific point in the plate exchanger []
Dh : float
Hydraulic diameter of the plate, :math:`D_h = \frac{4\lambda}{\phi}` [m]
rhol : float
Density of the liquid [kg/m^3]
rhog : float
Density of the gas [kg/m^3]
mul : float
Viscosity of the liquid [Pa*s]
kl : float
Thermal conductivity of liquid [W/m/K]
Hvap : float
Heat of vaporization of the fluid at the system pressure, [J/kg]
Cpl : float
Heat capacity of liquid [J/kg/K]
q : float
Heat flux, [W/m^2]
A_channel_flow : float
The flow area for the fluid, calculated as
:math:`A_{ch} = 2\cdot \text{width} \cdot \text{amplitude}` [m]
Returns
-------
h : float
Boiling heat transfer coefficient [W/m^2/K]
Notes
-----
Developed with R134a as the refrigerant in a PHD with 2 channels, chevron
angle 60 degrees, quality from 0.1 to 0.8, heat flux 11-15 kW/m^2, and mass
fluxes of 55 and 70 kg/m^2/s.
Examples
--------
>>> h_boiling_Yan_Lin(m=3E-5, x=.4, Dh=0.002, rhol=567., rhog=18.09,
... kl=0.086, Cpl=2200, mul=156E-6, Hvap=9E5, q=1E5, A_channel_flow=0.0003)
318.7228565961241
References
----------
.. [1] Yan, Y.-Y., and T.-F. Lin. "Evaporation Heat Transfer and Pressure
Drop of Refrigerant R-134a in a Plate Heat Exchanger." Journal of Heat
Transfer 121, no. 1 (February 1, 1999): 118-27. doi:10.1115/1.2825924.
.. [2] Amalfi, Raffaele L., Farzad Vakili-Farahani, and John R. Thome.
"Flow Boiling and Frictional Pressure Gradients in Plate Heat Exchangers.
Part 1: Review and Experimental Database." International Journal of
Refrigeration 61 (January 2016): 166-84.
doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.07.010.
.. [3] Eldeeb, Radia, Vikrant Aute, and Reinhard Radermacher. "A Survey of
Correlations for Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop for Evaporation and
Condensation in Plate Heat Exchangers." International Journal of
Refrigeration 65 (May 2016): 12-26. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2015.11.013.
.. [4] García-Cascales, J. R., F. Vera-García, J. M. Corberán-Salvador, and
J. Gonzálvez-Maciá. "Assessment of Boiling and Condensation Heat
Transfer Correlations in the Modelling of Plate Heat Exchangers."
International Journal of Refrigeration 30, no. 6 (September 2007):
1029-41. doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2007.01.004.
.. [5] Huang, Jianchang. "Performance Analysis of Plate Heat Exchangers
Used as Refrigerant Evaporators," 2011. Thesis.
http://wiredspace.wits.ac.za/handle/10539/9779
'''
G = m/A_channel_flow
G_eq = G*((1. - x) + x*(rhol/rhog)**0.5)
Re_eq = G_eq*Dh/mul
Re = G*Dh/mul # Not actually specified clearly but it is in another paper by them
Bo_eq = q/(G_eq*Hvap)
Pr_l = Prandtl(Cp=Cpl, k=kl, mu=mul)
return 1.926*(kl/Dh)*Re_eq*Pr_l**(1/3.)*Bo_eq**0.3*Re**-0.5
```